Microbes and other inconveniences that come along with high temperatures – What should we look out for?

The spring has arrived, as well as the microbes and other nuisances, which go hand in hand with high temperatures. Infections which are a normal occurrence during high temperatures might be mild but also deadly. These days, one of the most talked about topics is the danger of ticks and mosquitos, as well as the diseases that they might transfer to people and to animals. They are usually present in spring and summer months, so therefore the danger they might cause is higher in this period.

What is Lyme disease and what causes it?

Lyme disease is a multisystem disease with a subacute and chronic course, caused by bacteria Borrelia burgdorferi, which is transmitted to the host by tick bite. This disease primarily affects the skin, then the heart, joints, and the central nervous system.

Lyme disease is manifested by the appearance of local tissue swelling and redness at the site of the tick bite and the surrounding area in 3 to 32 days after the incident. The local rash is warm and usually is not painful to the touch. In 50% of patients, identical changes as those describe above can occur on other parts of the body, and in 15% of patients skin changes may not appear at all. Besides skin changes, symptoms may include increased temperature, fever, malaise, headache, and enlarged regional lymph nodes.

If the disease is not recognized and left untreated, 6 to 8 weeks later the second stage of the disease will develop which is characterized by joint pain, neurological, and cardiac symptoms.

The third stage develops in untreated patients, who after ten months or years develop permanent damage of the affected organs.

How is Lime disease diagnosed?

Avicena Laboratory offers a complete assessment of your health condition. New, modern, indirect immunofluorescence test for detection of IgG and IgM antibodies that Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato in human serum and IgG antibodies in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) – RIDA®FLOUR Borrelia burgdorferi. Since the cultivation of borreliae is very difficult, long and uncertain, this test has the main role in the diagnosis of Lyme disease because of its high sensitivity and specificity, as well as short period for getting definitive results (in one day).

Leishmaniasis (Kala Azar – “Black Death”)

Leishmaniasis is a parasitic disease caused by protozoan (single-celled parasite) of the genus – Leishmania. Transmitted by the bite of certain mosquito species (present in Macedonia, and different from the ordinary mosquitoes), after biting a dog infected with this parasite. The parasite attacks the immune system of the body and if left untreated, it might progress into a serious illness with deadly consequences.

Clinical picture

Leishmaniasis is characterized by symptoms that at first sight are similar to all other symptoms that indicate reduced immunity, i.e., decreased appetite, fever, weight loss, fatigue, anemia, sores at the mosquito bite site, fatigue, etc.

It is manifested in three ways:

– Cutaneous (skin)

– Mucocutaneous (skin-mucosa)

– Kala-azar (Black Death, affecting internal organs )

Annually about 1.5 million people in the world contract the skin form of the disease, and about 1.5 million people of Kala Azar.

The incubation period (from the time of the bite to the manifestation of the first symptom of the disease) is from 7 days to several months for the skin form, and 10 days to several years for the visceral form – Kala Azar.


Avicena Laboratory offers the most sophisticated test for diagnosis of leishmaniasis and elaborating the immune status. RIDASCREEN ® Leishmania Ab test, enzyme immunoassay (EIA) of German manufacturer R-Biopharm for quantitative determination of specific IgG antibodies against Leishmania infantum in the human serum.