Cardiac markers

The modern preventive medicine aims to make screening of the population in order to discover those with risk to develop a certain disease, in other words, to find those where the process has been already started, but has not been accompanied with symptoms. Today, the risk of occurrence of cardiovascular events can be interpreted as a result of many laboratory parameters which allow taking preventive actions on time.

What are cardiac markers?

Cardiac markers also known as cardiac biomarkers, are substances that are released into the blood and whose concentration is measured in order to assess the proper function of the heart.

Why are they measured?

The measurement of cardiac markers helps in risk assessment, diagnosis, monitoring and dealing with heart problems, enabling rapid initiation of preventive and therapeutic actions.

Avicena Laboratory offers modern high-sensitive tests form Siemens Healthcare Diagnostics inconcordance with the ESC (European Society of Cardiology) and ACC (American College of Cardiology Foundation) for determination of the concentration of all important cardiac markers inthe blood.

High sensitive C – reactive protein (hsCRP)

hsCRP is an acute phase protein that occurs in the circulation in response to inflammatory cytokines (such as interleukin-6) and a marker of systemic inflammation. It is an important indicator of inflammation, necrosis or tissue trauma.

► hsCRP is a predictor for the occurrence of cardiovascular disorder in adults with no previous history of disease existence.

► hsCRP enhances risk assessment and response to therapy in the primary prevention of cardiovascular disease.

Тhe reference values of plasma hsCRP are less than 3,0 mg/L.

Тhe hsCRP test performs quantitative analysis of very low levels of CRP in the blood. Classic CRP tests can’t detect the level of CRP that is associated with the development of cardio-vascular diseases. The hsCRP test can detect these low concentrations. It is a test which is increasingly used as a marker for assessing the risk of cardiovascular diseases, as well as prognostic marker in an existing heart diseases.

Along with the evaluation of lipid status and scoring systems for determining risk, hsCRP test is necessary in evaluating the risk for cardiovascular diseases.

Creatinin Kinase – CK


In clinical practice, the quantitative determination of CK in serum is used as a marker for myocardial infarction and skeletal muscles disease.

The concentration of CK-MB as a marker of early myocardial damage grows 2-6 hours after the attack, and can goes up to 2-3 days after a heart attack.

Reasons for increased values:

1. Miocardial Infarction

2. Miocarditis

3. Pericarditis

4. Muscular dystrophy

5. Heart surgery

6. Strenuous exersise – traning

7. Mixed connective tissue disease

8. Cardiomyopathy

9. Hypothermia

Reference values: up to 5.3 IU/L


Quantitative determination of troponin I in serum is used as a marker of myocardial necrosis and acute myocardial infarction, for identification of high risk patients and monitoring of the condition, confirms the need for more aggressive treatment, for distinguishing angina pectoris and myocardial infarction in patients with chest pain.

During myocardial infarction, the cardiac troponin remain elevated 10-14 days after cardiac damage.

Troponin levels in the blood remain elevated longer than levels of a CK-MB or MYO, allowing an extended diagnostic window for myocardial infarction.

Reference values: less than 1,0 ng/ml