What is gestational diabetes?

Gestational diabetes is a special type of diabetes that manifests itself with elevated glucose levels in the blood and occurs for the first time during pregnancy. It usually occurs in the later stages of pregnancy, often in women who have not had a history of diabetes.

Gestational diabetes most often occurs as a result of hormonal changes during pregnancy (more precisely because of hormones secreted by the placenta), which can create a predisposition for the development of insulin resistance. Insulin is a hormone of specific cells in the pancreas and enables the efficient use of glucose as fuel (energy). When the level of insulin is low, or the body can not use it effectively – due to the developed insulin resistance, the level of glucose in the blood increases.

Unlike other types of diabetes, gestational diabetes is not persistent. In most cases, gestational diabetes disappears after childbirth, but women who have gestational diabetes are at increased risk of developing it again with subsequent pregnancies and developing another type of diabetes in the future.

What are the symptoms of gestational diabetes?

Most pregnant women have no obvious or noticeable symptoms. The problem with this type of diabetes is that the pregnant woman does not notice these symptoms or associates them with another condition, so many gestational diabetics remain undiagnosed.

The most common symptoms of gestational diabetes are:

► Unusual thirst

► Frequent and excessive urination (unlike early pregnancy when urination is frequent but scarce)

► Unusual fatigue (which is sometimes difficult to distinguish from normal pregnancy fatigue)

► Elevated glucose levels in the urine detected during a routine urine test

Which women are at increased risk for developing gestational diabetes?

Тhese women are at increased risk:

– Women over 40 years;

– Have become pregnant with overweight or who have gained significant weight (more than recommended) during pregnancy;

– Suffer from high blood pressure;

– Тhey have previously given birth to a child over 4 kg;

– Manifested gestational diabetes in a previous pregnancy;

– Have diabetics in the immediate family;

– Have had multiple abortions, premature births;

 Why is it important to do an oGTT test?

oGTT (Оral Glucose Tolerance Test) helps diagnose gestational diabetes – an elevated glucose levels in the blood that develops during pregnancy.

It is recommended to be done in the 24th and 28th week of pregnancy. The test can be done earlier, if there are signs and symptoms of diabetes or there is a history of gestational diabetes in a previous pregnancy.

How is the test performed and how should you prepare for the oGTT?

Before visiting the laboratory

The patient should be on a balanced diet (moderate carbohydrate intake) for a few days before the test and should not be exposed to more physical exertion. Some medications that affect glucose metabolism (eg corticosteroids, diuretics) should be discontinued, but only in consultation with the doctor. The test is performed with pre-preparation which involves fasting for 12-14 hours, before taking the sample for testing.

In the laboratory

The oGTT test is performed in a laboratory, lasting 120-180 minutes. During the test, the patient should rest, can not eat, drink or smoke.

A venous blood sample is first taken to determine the levels of glucose in the serum after fasting. After that, the patient is given to drink a pre-prepared glucose solution of known concentration, then the glucose level is measured at certain intervals (after 1 hour and after 2 hours). For all this time of the test, the patient needs to rest and sit.


For patients who perform oGTT test in Avicena Laboratory at the expense of the Health Insurance Fund, with a referral from a doctor, it is necessary to make an appointment in advance at ?02 3179 001 or at a reception desk in the laboratory.

The test is available from Monday to Friday in our laboratory in Skopje, Taftalidze.


🌏Every February 4th is marked as World Cancer Day, to encourage greater awareness of early prevention, diagnosis and treatment, in order to reduce the global impact of the disease.

🔬As a leader in laboratory diagnostics, the past year we have been dedicated to find the latest generation of genetic tests that will help patients to predict the risk of the disease as well as to help those patients who have already been diagnosed with cancer, to find out the reason for the occurrence of this condition.

🧬 For this purpose, we have introduced the new portfolio of tests for hereditary cancers, which have been developed in our laboratories for the past 6 months. The so-called “Presentia” genetic panels can help patients get the best possible diagnostic service, which does not require visiting laboratories abroad, but from now on world-scale tests applied in the most modern medical centers in the world are available. and in our laboratory.

Know your genes, know your choice!

WorldCancerDay2023 #Avicenalab

Cystic fibrosis is a progressive, hereditary and often life-threatening disease that causes serious damage to the organs of the respiratory and digestive systems. It is estimated that more than 70,000 people worldwide have cystic fibrosis, and the figure varies on different continents.
Cystic fibrosis is caused by mutations in a special gene called the CFTR gene. Although more than 1700 different mutations can cause cystic fibrosis, approximately 120 are responsible for most cases of cystic fibrosis. These mutations affect the movement of salt and water in and out of cells that are responsible for the production of sweat, mucus and digestive fluids. In people with cystic fibrosis, these fluids become thick and sticky and thus clog the channels, tubes and other places in the body where they are excreted and thus affect the function of the white intestines, the pancreas, the black intestine, the intestine and the digestive system.

A person with cystic fibrosis may have more symptoms that vary depending on the severity of the disease. Some people experience mild to no symptoms until adolescence or adulthood. Symptoms can include salty sweat, frequent respiratory infections, cough, difficulty breathing, malnutrition and intolerance to physical activity, among others. Cystic fibrosis can cause continuous pulmonary respiratory infections that can lead to respiratory insufficiency.

Cystic fibrosis is an autosomal recessive disease, so two copies of the genetic mutation – one from each parent – are needed to inherit the disease. Even if your parents do not have cystic fibrosis, they could be carriers of the disease. Being a carrier means that someone has one copy of the genetic mutation. Even if twins are born as carriers, there is a 25% chance that the child will be born with cystic fibrosis, a 25% chance that the child will not be affected, and a 50% chance that the child will only be a carrier.

Most countries with a high prevalence of cystic fibrosis use a screening test for newborns that includes the most common mutations of the CFTR gene. Neonatal screening is part of the public health program in every country, the purpose of which is to check newborns for genetic conditions, shortly after birth. In addition, cystic fibrosis can be diagnosed at any age with a sweat chloride test or a genetic test.

There are several treatment options that can relieve symptoms and limit complications in patients with cystic fibrosis. Different types of drugs are used, and among the most used treatments are antibiotics to prevent infection, anti-inflammatory drugs to reduce swelling of the respiratory tract, drugs to thin mucus, drugs to reduce mucus in the body, taking pancreatic enzymes. People with cystic fibrosis can use techniques for assisted reproduction, such as in vitro fertilization, to overcome the problem of infertility. Also, there are techniques that help in keeping the airways and white intestines clean, such as deep breathing exercises or drainage through devices for cleaning the airways. People with cystic fibrosis must also seek advice on nutrition, since they have problems with digesting food and absorbing the necessary nutrients. For people who have more intense symptoms, treatment options usually include surgical interventions on the affected organs.

Modular therapy will reveal what is intended to repair or correct the defective protein that is made from the CFTR gene. Since different mutations cause different defects in the protein, the drugs that are developed are effective only in people with specific mutations. The earlier cystic fibrosis is diagnosed and this therapy is implemented, the better the prognosis will be for the affected individual.

Advances in medicine have made it possible for people with cystic fibrosis to live much longer than they did in the past. Many institutions and research centers around the world are working hard for new achievements in the study of this disease and finding cures.
Oreana neonatal screening, which is available in the Avicena Laboratory, can detect mutations that cause the classic phenotype of cystic fibrosis, along with many other conditions.
This content is informative and should not be construed as medical advice. Always talk to your doctor about your condition.

Read more about Oreana


Respiratory infections are the most common reason for patients to see their doctor. Although these infections occur throughout the year, the autumn-winter period is the season when colds and more serious respiratory diseases are most common.

We live in a COVID-19 pandemic, but many other pathogens are all around us and can cause respiratory infections in both adults and children.

For proper treatment of the disease, it is always very important to know the true cause of the disease, in order to act in a timely and targeted manner with appropriate therapy. Particular attention should be paid to atypical triggers of respiratory infections, which cannot be demonstrated by classical microbiological methods but by immunofluorescence techniques and / or molecular methods.

Avicena Laboratory has a wide range of tests for detection and identification of different types of bacteria and viruses by various methods. But first let’s see what are the first signs of respiratory infections?


Depending on which part of the respiratory tract they occupy, respiratory infections can be upper respiratory or lower respiratory infections. Common symptoms include:

  • nasal secretions
  • stuffy nose
  • sneezing
  • coughing
  • scratching, burning or sore throat
  • pain when swallowing
  • general weakness
  • headache
  • difficulty breathing

In addition, there may be muscle pain, mild fever or chills, nausea and loss of appetite. These symptoms last for several days, and if complications occur, even longer.
Respiratory infections are transmitted through close contact with an infected person, through the secretions from sneezing, coughing or objects in the immediate vicinity of the patient. This is especially evident in the winter, when most of the day is spent indoors.

In many cases it is difficult to identify the exact cause of a respiratory infection, especially when it comes to mixed infections. In addition, the symptoms of respiratory infections, whether it be the flu virus, SARS-CoV-2 or another cause, are very similar.


Causes of respiratory infections are many microorganisms: bacteria, viruses, fungi. The diagnosis should always be based on a detailed examination by a doctor and of course, an accurate laboratory result.
A number of highly sensitive and specific tests are available at Avicenna Laboratory, designed to detect a number of causes of respiratory infections.

  • PNEUMOSLIDE – test for simultaneous detection of antibodies to 9 bacteria and viruses, causes of respiratory infections, which are not detected by conventional microbiological swabs. The test is done through blood, and the results are obtained the same day.

With the right choice of appropriate test and consultation with a doctor, it is found out exactly and in time what caused the respiratory infection and appropriate therapy is given. In doing so, the possible development of complications is prevented and valuable time and resources are not lost.


If it is a viral infection, antibiotics are not needed! Medications are taken to help reduce fever, muscle pain, nasal congestion drops, etc., accompanied by rest and proper nutrition.
If it is a bacterial infection, take medication on the recommendation of a doctor, aimed at the appropriate cause.

Know your genes, know your choices!
Avicena Laboratory expands its portfolio and begins the production of genetic panels for hereditary cancers.

The new portfolio of genetic tests, which will help patients get the best possible diagnostic service, which does not require them to visit laboratories abroad, but from now on world-scale tests applied in the most modern medical centers in the world are also available in our country.

“Presentia” – Genetic panels for the detection of mutations that cause hereditary types of breast, ovarian and uterine cancer. The tests represent a revolutionary solution for predicting the risk of cancer as well as helping those patients who have already been diagnosed with the disease to find out the cause of the occurrence of this condition.

PreSENTIA presents a portfolio of hereditary cancer testing panels. Each panel focuses on a particular group of genes that determine your chances of developing cancer in the future. Genetic changes (mutations) in genes that cause cancer can be passed on to children from their parents.


  • Clinically important genetic mutations are evaluated
  • Short processing time of the biological material
  • Safe and easy test
  • By focusing only on the genetic changes tested, PreSENTIA is accurate and precise.

PreSENTIA panels are used to test for many genetic changes that are responsible for causing hereditary cancers. If patients want to know more about their risk of developing cancer, or if a patient has already been diagnosed with cancer and wants to know if the cancer is inherited, PreSENTIA can help.

PreSENTIA can potentially identify genetic changes that would cause cancer. It has a number of benefits in terms of planning, prognosis and making better decisions about the treatment of the disease:

  • Targeted cancer monitoring – recommended screening tests at key time intervals in order to detect cancer early, when treatment is far more effective
  • Preventing cancer by taking prophylactic measures
  • Obtaining useful information about family members who might carry the same genetic mutation
  • Improved disease classification for better clinical disease management
  • Drug therapy (chemoprevention), where possible

The PreSENTIA Breast/Gynecologic Cancer Panel tests for multiple gene mutations that could cause breast, ovarian, or uterine cancer in the future. By early detection of these mutations, PreSENTIA helps patients make better and more informed decisions about their health.

Who is this test for?

  • Patients who have several family members with cancer
  • Family members with early onset cancer
  • Family members with rare cancers
  • A family member with multiple types of cancer
  • A family member diagnosed with a mutation associated with ovarian, uterine, or breast cancer
  • Personal history of previous malignant diseases
    Price: 29,500 denars.
    Issuance of results: 2 – 4 WEEKS

An inherited genetic panel that detects BRCA1/BRCA2 mutations that can cause breast and ovarian cancer. By early detection of these mutations, PreSENTIA helps patients make better and more informed decisions about their health.

Who is this test for?

  • Several family members with cancer on the same side of the family
  • Multiple cancers in the same family member
  • Family members with early onset cancer
  • Family members with rare cancers
  • A family member diagnosed with a germline mutation associated with cancer susceptibility
  • History of previous malignant tumors
    Price: 24,900 denars.
    Issuance of results: 2 – 4 WEEKS

Oreana – neonatal screening

A detailed genetic picture of your little one’s health!

“Oreana” – A test that provides a detailed genetic picture of the health of newborns, infants and small children. The test was developed with the help of the latest generation of bioinformatics analysis and helps to detect 106 disorders that can cause developmental obstacles in children.

Oreana Neonatal Screening can detect treatable or controllable conditions before the first symptoms appear. With early treatment and a disease prevention plan, symptoms can be avoided and health problems can be minimized or prevented altogether.

Oreana can also be used in newborns, infants and children showing symptoms of a genetic disease that is difficult to identify. In such cases, Oreana can help choose the appropriate therapy that will help the child.

The Oreana neonatal screening test is intended for 106 genetic disorders that are treatable or whose condition can be improved thanks to early detection. Among others, Oreana is used to test:

With Oreana, early detection of conditions that can change a child’s life is carried out, and can have a great contribution to health and quality of life. Initial symptoms of many of these conditions include lack of energy, breathing problems, vomiting, feeding difficulties, and episodes of metabolic crisis that warrant emergency care. Although treatment can begin after the child begins to show the first symptoms, which can happen weeks or months after birth, the child’s growth and development are already affected by the condition. Early detection and starting treatment as early as possible is the most appropriate way to prevent the onset of symptoms or to minimize the impact of the condition.

142 genes and 106 autosomal recessive, autosomal dominant and X-linked chromosomal disorders can be tested using Oreana. Disorders tested for with Oreana are included in the Panel of Recommended Uniform Screenings, which is a list of disorders selected based on the American College of Medical Genetics (ACMG) recommendations for newborn screening, whose early detection can prevent or to reduce the serious consequences of certain conditions, such as developmental delay, cognitive disorders, neurological and physical difficulties.

The Oreana test is useful for:
• Asymptomatic infants
for early identification of conditions that initially cause no symptoms, with babies showing no signs of illness. However, once symptoms appear, the damage they can cause can be irreversible and lead to a rapid deterioration in a child’s health, which is why early detection is so helpful.

• Symptomatic infants
showing signs and symptoms of a disease that is difficult to clearly identify precisely because of the complexity or variability of symptoms. In such cases, the Oreana test can accurately identify the genetic mutation (change in DNA) that is responsible for the disease and can help the child receive the optimal health treatment.


Testing is quick and safe for children. For the production of Oreana, specialized soft sticks are used in Avicenna Laboratory, with which biological material is taken from the inside of the child’s cheek, with circular movements. The procedure is painless and takes only a few seconds.


The results are obtained quickly, so if necessary, your baby can start the appropriate treatment in the shortest possible time.


Superior technology developed by top experts that delivers accurate results.


It tests for genetic mutations that cause diseases accompanied by serious health problems.

DETECTED 106 disorders

It complements routine newborn screening programs that test for fewer disorders.


Your child can be tested after birth, right through to early childhood. Ideally, the earlier testing is done, the sooner it will be known if the child is affected by a given condition and treatment can be started, thereby preventing symptoms or minimizing the impact of the disease.


With the help of Oreana, 106 genetic conditions can be tested, with the early detection of which can prevent or reduce the serious consequences of certain conditions, such as developmental delay, cognitive disorders, neurological and physical difficulties. Tested conditions may occur as a result of an inherited condition from parents unaware of their carrier status, with or without a prior family history of such a disorder.


Price: 27,900 denars.

What is the release time for Oreana results?

Issuance of results: 2-3 WEEKS


An appointment is not required to take the test. You can visit us during the working hours of our laboratories.


If you have additional questions regarding the test, contact your doctor or contact us at lab@avicenalab.com.mk or through our contact center: 02 3179 001.

Rodinia – Male and Female Infertility Panels

Avicena Laboratory expands its portfolio and begins the development of genetic tests for male and female infertility.

The new portfolio of genetic tests, which will help patients get the best possible diagnostic service, which does not require them to visit laboratories abroad, but from now on world-scale tests applied in the most modern medical centers in the world are also available in our country.

“Rodinia” – Genetic panels to discover the cause of infertility in men and women. These two panels, panel for “female” and panel for “male” infertility can help couples and young people to successfully detect the genetic cause of infertility, prevent this condition and start timely treatment.

Rodinia is a screening test for genetic changes (mutations) associated with infertility. By identifying the genetic cause of infertility, you can make informed and accurate decisions that will result in the best clinical treatment plan for the patient, which will help increase the chances of conception.

The Rodinia test is suitable for couples or individuals who cannot achieve pregnancy, young people with a suspected disorder of sexual development and people with a family history of infertility.

Who is Rodinia for?
Couples or individuals who cannot achieve pregnancy.
Women with irregular periods or women who have no periods at all.
Men with a low number of sperm in the semen, irregular shape or movement of the sperm.
Individuals with external characteristics suggestive of a syndrome related to sexual development.
Couples or individuals intending to undergo assisted reproductive technology (ART) treatment.
Candidates for sperm or oocyte donation, as well as individuals with a family history of infertility.

It includes X-chromosome testing and disorders such as primary ovarian failure, polycystic ovary syndrome, hypogonadotropic hypogonadism, and ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome.
Price: 30,500 denars
Issuance of results: 2 – 4 WEEKS

It includes X and Y chromosome testing, including Y chromosome microdeletions and disorders such as hypogonadotropic hypogonadism, such as Kallmann syndrome.
Price: 30,500 denars
Issuance of results: 2 – 4 WEEKS
Price with discount (if both partners are tested together): MKD 58,500

Avicena Laboratory supports you throughout your pregnancy

The advancement of science has led to development of a wide array of laboratory analyses, to support women throughout any period of their lives. Many women face numerous challenges, since the very moment of conception, all the way to the birth of their child. Laboratory analyses and services are an essential component of every pregnancy, as they provide important insights into the health of both the mom-to-be and her baby.

Avicena Laboratory offers the widest selection of both routine and specific tests required during pregnancy, designed to provide useful information on both mother’s and baby’s health.


Beta HCG – The test determines the level of Beta HCG via a blood pregnancy test, and serves to confirm pregnancy in addition to commercially available over-the-counter pregnancy tests.


Complete blood count, hemoglobin and sedimentation test – Significant decrease of red blood cells (erythrocytes) count, alongside with decreased hemoglobin levels suggest potential anemia, a disorder which is often associated with pregnancy, and in most of the cases, is caused by low levels of iron and folic acid (vitamin B12).

Urinalysis and urine culture test (microbiological urine test).

Screening for the presence of infectious diseases via blood test and microbiological smear tests: TORCH, HIV1/2, HBV, HCV.

Early screening and treatment of infections is of key importance for the proper fetal development and the health of babies during pregnancy and after childbirth.

These tests provide valuable information in terms of the presence of an infection at the time of testing, as well as in terms of any infection that has existed in the past. Triggers of such infections may enter the placenta at some point and cause complications to baby’s health, during pregnancy or upon childbirth.


PRISCA – (Prenatal Risk Calculation Software) consists of quantifying certain markers which circulate in mother’s blood and directly impact both the development and the wellbeing of the child. Test values obtained are then combined with other significant parameters, such as the age and the overall health condition of the mother, as well as with the measurements of the baby made during an ultrasonography (gynaecological scan). Once obtained, all data are fed into a computer, which uses special software and calculates baby’s risk of being affected by any of the following anomalies: Down’s syndrome, Edward’s syndrome and neural tube defect.

VERAgene – The newest generation of non-invasive prenatal test

VERAgene is the only non-invasive prenatal test that performs simultaneous screening for aneuploidy, microdeletions and 100 monogenetic diseases.
Monogenetic diseases tested by VERAgene are associated with moderate to severe phenotype and have a significant impact on quality of life. With screening for aneuploidy and microdeletions and 100 monogenetic diseases, VERAgene provides a comprehensive solution for potential parents.

Learn more about VERAgene on the following link.

Complete blood count, hemoglobin and sedimentation test.

THIRD TRIMESTER (28-40 gestation week)

oGTT (Оral Glucose Tolerance Test) – glucose tolerance test helps diagnose gestational diabetes – increased glucose levels in blood, which develops during pregnancy.

Usually, pregnant women are recommended to undergo this test between the 24th and the 28th week of pregnancy. Women can also undergo this test at an earlier state of their pregnancy, if there are signs and symptoms of diabetes or if there is a history of gestational diabetes in previous pregnancy(s), based on doctor’s recommendations.

Group B Streptococcus – this is a smear test done before childbirth, in order to prevent potential transmission of infection to the baby.

Complete blood count, hemoglobin and sedimentation test.

Urine culture test (microbiological urine test).

Avicena Laboratory is your one-stop laboratory! 

Please click on the following link to find out more about the prices of the medical tests above.

Please note that this leaflet is of informative character and the tests stated above are only recommended based on an evaluation of your gynecologist. Depending on the overall health, your gynecologist may recommend that additional analyses be conducted.

Why is genetic testing important for male infertility?

Infertility is a common medical problem affecting 15% of people trying to conceive. In 30% to 50% of cases, the man is the main factor in the inability to conceive.

Detection of genetic causes of male infertility allows the diagnosis of infertility in couples trying to start a family, as well as making recommendations for further steps to be taken (artificial insemination techniques and appropriate genetic counseling).

Spermatogenesis is an essential process that is regulated by many specific genes located on the Y chromosome. Most of these genes are located in a specific region known as the azoospermia factor (AZF) region of the long arm of the human Y chromosome.

AZF microdeletions are recognized as the most common structural chromosomal abnormalities and are the leading cause of male infertility.

The changes in this region are associated with abnormalities in sperm production, and thus to infertility. AZF microdeletions are one of the main causes of azoospermia (complete absence of sperm in the ejaculate) and severe oligozoospermia (less than 5 million sperm in the ejaculate in men).

A new test performed in the Avicena Laboratory detects chromosomal changes-deletions of AZF (AZFa, AZFb, AZFc) on the human Y-chromosome, using the RT-PCR method.

Sample required: blood
Production time: 1 working day.
We are at your disposal for additional questions and information on 02 3179 001.

IMPROPER STORAGE AND PROCESSING OF FOOD – A challenge for the development of bacteria

Bacteria such as Salmonella, Shigella and Campylobacter often cause stomach cramps, diarrhea, nausea and vomiting, headache, fever. Symptoms usually appear 6 to 72 hours after infection. Symptoms usually last 4 to 7 days, sometimes much longer.
These bacteria are mainly transmitted by eating undercooked food made from infected animals (meat, chicken, eggs and products made from them) or food produced for mass production (chocolates, candies, all kinds of confectionery products) that are not stored properly temperature and environment.
Bacteria are killed by complete cooking of food (well-cooked food).

Avoid raw or undercooked meat, poultry or eggs. Poultry and other meats – for example, burgers, sausages and roast rolls – should not be eaten if they are pink in the middle. Food handling – as bacteria can remain on the hands, it is very important to always wash your hands thoroughly after using the toilet and before preparing food.

IMPROPER WASHING OF VEGETABLES AND FRUIT – Increased chance of contact with viruses

Norovirus, Rotavirus, Adenovirus, Astrovirus and Sapovirus are just some of the viruses that cause various types of gastrointestinal diseases in humans and are accompanied by nausea, fever, vomiting …
Viruses often hide behind poorly washed products such as fruits and vegetables, and during summer temperatures, they have a great chance of multiplying.
In Avicena Laboratory a complete gastrointestinal package-detection of 17 causes of gastrointestinal infections 6 viruses (Norovirus G I, Norovirus G II, Rotavirus, Adenovirus, Astrovirus Sapovirus), 9 bacteria (Salmonella Species, Salmonella ENTERERICA SEROVARICA Shigella species, Shigella dysenteriae, Shigella flexneri, Campylobacter species, Campylobacter jejuni, Campylobacter coli) AND 2 FUNGI (Candida albicans and Candida species), with MULTIPLEX REAL-TIME PCR method.

HOT AND MOISTURE WEATHER – Increased chance of tick bites

Spring has arrived, as have germs and other inconveniences that go along with high temperatures. Infections, which are normal and accompanied by fever, can be mild but also more serious. There is a lot of talk these days about the dangers of ticks and mosquitoes and the diseases they can transmit to humans and animals. They are regularly present in the spring and summer months, so the danger from them is greater in this period.
Lyme disease is a multisystem disease that has a subacute and chronic course and is caused by the bacterium Borrelia burgdorferi, which is transmitted by the tick through its sting to the host. The disease first affects the skin and then the heart, joints and central nervous system.
Lyme disease is manifested by local swelling and redness at the site of the sting and in the surrounding area, 3-32 days after the incident. Local redness is warm and usually not painful. In 50% of patients, identical changes may occur in other parts of the body, and in 15% of patients, skin changes may not occur. In addition to skin changes, fever, chills, malaise, headache, and enlarged regional lymph nodes may occur.
Avicena Laboratory offers you a complete assessment of your health. A new, modern, indirect immunofluorescence test for the detection of IgG and IgM antibodies in Borrelia burgdorferi. This test is central to the diagnosis of Lyme disease due to its high sensitivity and specificity, the short time to obtain a definitive answer (one day) and the fact that the cultivation of borreliosis is very difficult, long-lasting and unreliable.

INCREASED TEMPERATURES – Increased chance of mosquito bites

Leishmaniasis is a parasitic disease caused by a protozoan (single-celled parasite) of the genus Leishmania. It is transmitted by the bite of certain types of mosquitoes (which are also present in our country, and are different from ordinary mosquitoes), which have previously bitten a dog that is infected with this parasite. The parasite attacks the body’s defense system and if left untreated, can turn into a serious disease.
Leishmaniasis is characterized by symptoms that at first glance are similar to all other symptoms that indicate reduced immunity, ie, decreased appetite, fever, weakness, fatigue, anemia, sores at the site of the mosquito bite, lethargy and others.
Avicena Laboratory offers you the most modern test for diagnosing leishmaniasis and clarifying the immune status. RIDASCREEN ® Leishmania Ab Test, enzyme immunoassay (EIA) of German manufacturer R-Biopharm for quantitative determination of specific IgG antibodies against Leishmania infantum in blood.